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ART “4” “2”-DAY  01 April v.10.20
BIRTHS:  1831 ANKER — 1856 MAURIN — 1852 ABBEY
click for April Fool image<<< click on image for Norman Rockwell picture full of April Fool sight gags.

See also April Fool Cat (photo; 600x800pix, 83kb) puzzled by an inedible mouse.
^ >Born on 01 April 1831: Samuel Albert (or Albrecht) Anker, Swiss painter and illustrator, specialized in Children, who died on 16 July 1910. — {About that painter Albert Anker: / When his wife showed him a tanker at anchor; / He could see no reason to thank her, / And he said: “That subject doesn't suit Anker.”}
— Anker's early interest in art was kindled by visiting the exhibitions of the Société des Amis des Arts in Neuchâtel in 1842, and he took private drawing lessons from Louis Wallinger [1819–1886] between 1845 and 1848. However he began studying theology in Berne in 1851, continuing these studies at the university in Halle. During his stay in Germany he became acquainted with major German collections, notably the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden, which impressed him deeply. His father reluctantly consented to an artistic career, and in 1854 Anker moved to Paris, where he joined the studio of Charles Gleyre. He studied at the École Impériale des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1855 until 1860, meanwhile selling portraits. In 1861 he traveled in northern Italy, copying Old Masters such as Titian and Correggio.
— Auguste Bachelin was a student of Anker.

–- The Whistle Carver (1873; 1575x1310pix, 115kb)
–- Der Kleine Musikant (1858; 1575x1184pix, 114kb)
–- Little Girl Soothing Crying Baby (694x905pix, 36kb)
–- Die Tochter Marie (795x663pix, 30kb)
The Artist's Daughter Louise (1874; 750x575pix; 93kb _ ZOOM to 1400x1073pix)
Krankes Mädchen mit Puppen spielend (1878; 600x920pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2147pix)
Der Neugeborene (600x920pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2147pix) being introduced by mom to brother and sisters.
Der Großvater (1893; 600x912pix _ ZOOM to 1400x2128pix) with young grandson reading to him.
Die Dorfschule (600x1048pix _ ZOOM not recommended to blurry 1400x2445pix, 527kb)
Dora Luthy and turtle (1900, 55x47cm)
Mutter und Kind (65x46cm)
The Crèche (1890)
The Little Knitters (1892)

^ Died on 01 (02?) April 1896: Theodore Robinson, US Impressionist painter born on 03 June 1852. He studied under Claude Monet. — {OK, he was from the US. But did he have a Swiss family?}
— Brought up in Evansville Wisconsin, Robinson studied art briefly in Chicago at the end of the 1860s, and in New York at the National Academy of Design (1874–1876). His early work, for example Haying (1882), was in the US genre tradition of Winslow Homer. From 1876 to 1878 Robinson studied in Paris under Carolus-Duran, alongside John Singer Sargent, and under Jean-Léon Gerôme. In 1879 Robinson returned to the USA and lived mainly in New York and Boston; he made a living by teaching and by assisting John La Farge and Prentice Treadwell with mosaic and stained-glass decorations for the Metropolitan Opera House in New York. In 1881 Robinson was elected to the Society of American Artists, a group in revolt against the conservatism of the National Academy.
     Returning to France in 1884, Robinson worked in Paris and Barbizon and was strongly influenced for a time by the Barbizon School. A crucial event was his meeting with Monet at Giverny, near Rouen, in 1887. By 1888 they were close friends and Robinson began to develop his own Impressionist style, which was never as extreme in its use of broken color as that of Monet. His aim, as he wrote in his journal, was to combine Impressionism’s ‘brilliancy and light of real outdoors’ with ‘the austerity, the sobriety, that has always characterized good painting’. Cézanne seems to have influenced the strong compositional structure of his paintings, and his best work was done mostly in France during the next four years. He also painted in Italy for several months in 1890 and 1891. His favorite subjects were landscapes and intimate vignettes of farm and village life, such as The Watering Pots (1890), In The Grove (1888) and Wedding March (1892). Since models were expensive and Robinson was poor, he often took photographs as studies for his figure compositions.

Woman in a White Cap (1884; 107kb)
Girl with Puppies (1881, 53x30cm)
Stepping Stones (1893, 54x72cm)
— House in Virginia (1893, 46x56cm)
— In the Orchard (1895, 46x56cm)
— Girl Sewing (1891, 46x55cm)
— Country Road (35x25cm)
117 images at the Athenaeum
^ Born on 01 April 1856: Charles Maurin, French painter and printmaker who died on 22 July 1914 (1913?).
— In 1875 he won the Prix Crozatier, which enabled him to study in Paris, at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jules Lefebvre in 1876–1879 and also at the Académie Julian, where he later taught. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, becoming a member in 1883. Among his paintings are the Prelude to Lohengrin and Maternity. Inspired by the work of Japanese artists and the growing popularity of the 18th-century print, he was one of a small group of artists who experimented with color plates and in 1891 he patented a new technique of color printing. His best works are his lightly washed grey and pink etchings of nudes, such as After the Bath, The Model and Child with a Pink Ribbon, which show a high standard of drawing and modelling. He also produced wood-engravings, for instance Head of a Young Girl in a Landscape (1890), and others set in low-life cafés and music-halls.

Maternity (1893; 647x800pix, 152kb)
Niccolò Paganini (1838; 800x541pix, 278kb) lithograph by Albert Newsam after a painting by Maurin.
^ Died on 01 April 1976: Max Ernst, German French Surrealist painter and sculptor born on 02 April 1891.
— Ernst lived in Paris, New York 1940-1948, became a French citizen in 1958. He was a leading advocate for irrationality in art, and an originator of the Automatism movement of Surrealism. As a youth his interests were psychiatry and philosophy, however he abandoned his studies at the University of Bonn for painting. Ernst served in the German army during World War I. Converted to Dadaism, the nihilistic art movement, he formed a group of Dadaist artists in Cologne. With artist-poet Jean Arp [16 Sep 1887 – 07 Jun 1966], Ernst edited journals and created a scandal by staging a Dada exhibit in a public restroom. More important, however, were his Dada collages and photomontages — startlingly illogical compositions which suggest multiple identities for the things depicted.
     Ernst moved to Paris in 1922 and two years later became a founding member of the Surrealists. To facilitate the flow of imagery from the unconscious mind, Ernst began to use "frottage" (pencil rubbings of such things as wood grain, fabric, or leaves) and "decalcomania" (the transferring of paint from one surface to another by pressing them together). By contemplating the accidental patterns and textures resulting from these techniques, he allowed free association to suggest images he then used in a series of drawings (Histoire naturelle, 1926) and in many paintings such as The Forest (1928) and The Temptation of St. Anthony (1945). These vast landscapes stem from the tradition of the German Romantics. After 1934 Ernst's activities centered more and more on sculpture, using improvised techniques.
      At the onset of World War II, Ernst moved to the US, where he joined his third wife, the collector and gallery owner Peggy Guggenheim [26 Aug 1898 – 23 Dec 1979], and his son, the US painter Jimmy Ernst [1920-1984]. After 1946 he moved to Sedona, Arizona, with his 4th wife, US painter Dorothea Tanning. After Ernst returned to France in 1949, his work became less and less experimental: he spent much of his time perfecting his modeling technique in traditional sculptural materials.
— Ernst was born in Bruhl, Germany. He enrolled in the University at Bonn in 1909 to study philosophy, but soon abandoned this pursuit to concentrate on art. At this time he was interested in psychology and the art of the mentally ill. In 1911 Ernst became a friend of August Macke and joined the Rheinische Expressionisten group in Bonn. Ernst showed for the first time in 1912 at the Galerie Feldman in Cologne. At the Sonderbund exhibition of that year in Cologne he saw the work of Paul Cézanne [19 Jan 1839 – 22 Oct 1906], Edvard Munch [12 Dec 1863 – 23 Jan 1944], Pablo Picasso [25 Oct 1881 – 08 Apr 1973], and Vincent van Gogh [30 Mar 1853 – 29 Jul 1890]. In 1913 he met Guillaume Apollinaire [1880-1918] and Robert Delaunay [12 Apr 1885 – 25 Oct 1941] and traveled to Paris. Ernst participated that same year in the Erste deutsche Herbstsalon. In 1914 he met Jean Arp, who was to become a lifelong friend.
      Despite military service throughout World War I, Ernst was able to continue painting and to exhibit in Berlin at Der Sturm in 1916. He returned to Cologne in 1918. The next year he produced his first collages and founded the short-lived Cologne Dada movement with Johannes Theodor Baargeld [09 Oct 1892 – 18 Aug 1927]; they were joined by Arp and others. In 1921 Ernst exhibited for the first time in Paris, at the Galerie au Sans Pareil. He was involved in Surrealist activities in the early 1920s with Paul Eluard [1895-1952] and André Breton [1896-1966]. In 1925 Ernst executed his first frottages; a series of frottages was published in his book Histoire naturelle in 1926. He collaborated with Joan Miró [20 Apr 1893 – 25 Dec 1983] on designs for Sergei Diaghilev that same year. The first of his collage-novels, La Femme 100 têtes, was published in 1929. The following year the artist collaborated with Salvador Dalí [11 May 1904 – 23 Jan 1989] and Luis Buñuel on the film L’Age d’or.
      Ernst's first show in the US was held at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York, in 1932. In 1936 Ernst was represented in Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1939 he was interned in France as an enemy alien. Two years later Ernst fled to the United States with Peggy Guggenheim, whom he married early in 1942. After their divorce he married Dorothea Tanning [1910~] and in 1953 resettled in France. Ernst received the Grand Prize for painting at the Venice Biennale in 1954, and in 1975 the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum gave him a major retrospective, which traveled in modified form to the Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, in 1975. He died in Paris.

The Clothing of the Bride (1940)
Histoire Naturelle (1923, 232x356cm)
École d'Oiseaux (1947 etching)
Von Minimax Dadamax selbst konstruiertes Maschinchen (1920, 49x31cm) _ This was made in Cologne the year Dada was established there. It belongs to a series of about fifty works dating from 1919–1920, based on diagrams of scientific instruments, in which Max Ernst used printer’s plates to reproduce preexisting images. The impressions, once altered by traditional coloristic and modeling effects, occupy a position between found object and artistic product, like his collages.
      In both subject and style the series can be compared with Francis Picabia’s mechanomorphic drawings and paintings. Ernst shared with Picabia [22 Jan 1879 – 30 Nov 1953] an interest in typography, printed images, and language; many of the forms in the present work can be read as letters. They function as well to describe a mechanical structure that can be seen as a symbol of sexual activity, like Picabia’s Très rare tableau sur la terre (1915, 126x98cm) and his L'Enfant Carburateur (1919), or The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (1923) of Marcel Duchamp [28 Jul 1887 – 02 Oct 1968]. Ernst’s machine is a fantasized solution to the psychological pressures of sexual Performance, as announced in the humorously heroic inscription at the bottom of the sheet: “Little machine constructed by minimax dadamax in person for fearless pollination of female suckers at the beginning of the change of life and for other such fearless functions”. The right side of the machine seems to comprise a miniature laboratory for the production of semen, which is indicated as a red drop that courses through passageways to the left side of the apparatus. The drop finally issues from the yellow faucet, accompanied by a whimsically self-assured and cheerful “Bonjour.” Alternatively, the machine can be seen as a combination of male and female halves. The female (at the right) is dowdy and angular; the more brilliantly colored male (at the left) “fearlessly” points away from her.
Le Baiser (1927, 129x161cm) _ From humorously clinical depictions of erotic events in the Dada period, such as Little Machine Constructed by Minimax Dadamax in Person, Max Ernst moved on to celebrations of uninhibited sexuality in his Surrealist works. His liaison and marriage with the young Marie-Berthe Aurenche in 1927 may have inspired the erotic subject matter of this painting and others of this year. The major compositional lines of this work may have been determined by the configurations of string that Ernst dropped on a preparatory surface, a procedure according with Surrealist notions of the importance of chance effects. However, Ernst used a coordinate grid system to transfer his string configurations to canvas, thus subjecting these chance effects to conscious manipulation. Visually, the technique produces undulating calligraphic rhythms, like those traced here against the glowing earth and sky colors.
      The centralized, pyramidal grouping and the embracing gesture of the upper figure in The Kiss have lent themselves to comparison with Renaissance compositions, specifically the The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne by Leonardo da Vinci [15 Apr 1452 – 02 May 1519]. The Leonardo work was the subject of a psychosexual interpretation by Sigmund Freud, whose writings were important to Ernst and other Surrealists. The adaptation of a religious subject would add an edge of blasphemy to the exuberant lasciviousness of Ernst’s picture.
La Forêt (1928, 96x130cm) _ André Breton’s Surrealist Manifesto of 1924 proclaimed “pure psychic automatism” as an artistic ideal, emphasizing inspiration derived from the chance juxtaposition of forms and the haphazard use of materials. Max Ernst came under the influence of Breton’s ideas in 1924, and soon thereafter developed his frottage or rubbing technique.1 In making his first frottages, he dropped pieces of paper at random on floor boards and rubbed them with pencil or chalk, thus transferring the design of the wood grain to the paper. He next adapted this technique to oil painting, scraping paint from prepared canvases laid over materials such as wire mesh, chair caning, leaves, buttons, or twine. His repertory of objects closely parallels that used by Man Ray [27 Aug 1890 – 18 Nov 1976] in his experiments with Rayograms during the same period. Using his grattage (scraping) technique, Ernst covered his canvases completely with pattern and then interpreted the images that emerged, thus allowing texture to suggest composition in a spontaneous fashion. In The Forest the artist probably placed the canvas over a rough surface (perhaps wood), scraped oil paint over the canvas, and then rubbed, scraped, and overpainted the area of the trees.
      The subject of a dense forest appears often in Ernst’s work of the late twenties and early thirties. These canvases, of which The Quiet Forest (1927), is another example, generally contain a wall of trees, a solar disk, and an apparition of a bird hovering amid the foliage. Ernst’s attitude toward the forest as the sublime embodiment of both enchantment and terror can be traced to his experiences in the German forest as a child. His essay “Les Mystères de la forêt,” published in Minotaure in 1934, vividly conveys his fascination with the various kinds of forests. The Peggy Guggenheim canvas resonates with those qualities he identified with the forests of Oceania: “They are, it seems, savage and impenetrable, black and russet, extravagant, secular, swarming, diametrical, negligent, ferocious, fervent, and likeable, without yesterday or tomorrow. . . . Naked, they dress only in their majesty and their mystery”
Couple zoomorphe (1933, 92x73cm) _ By 1925 Ernst had developed his frottage technique, which he associated with a childhood memory of accidental forms materializing within the grooves of wooden floorboards. He also acknowledged the influence of his later discovery of Leonardo da Vinci’s Treatise on Painting, in which artists are advised to gaze at the stains on walls until figures and scenes emerge. In the Hordes series of 1926–32 Ernst placed twine beneath his canvases and then rubbed pigment over their surfaces. The meanderings of the twine were thus revealed; these chance configurations were then manipulated to elicit imagery.
      In Zoomorphic Couple, the appearance of light, sinuous channels through dark painted areas produces a relieflike effect suggestive of frottage. However, the artist created the effect here by putting paint-laden string or rope on top of the canvas and spraying over it. The image of the bird, which recurs frequently in Ernst’s work from 1925, had become an almost obsessive preoccupation by 1930. In the present painting one can discern a vaguely birdlike form and a caressing humanoid arising from the primordial material that gives them their substance. It has been suggested that the atavistic imagery in Ernst’s work of this period alludes to the failure of European civilization in the face of the rising National Socialist threat in Germany. (Ernst was blacklisted by the party in 1933 when Hitler became Chancellor of the Third Reich.) Though a sensitivity to the current political climate may be inferred, it is not confirmed by anecdotal detail. The forms have the effect of dream or poetic apparition.
      The sense of genesis and evolutionary stirrings in Zoomorphic Couple is complemented by the creative inventiveness of the artist, who combines layers of pastel color under spattered, blown, and dripped paint.
La Toilette de la mariée (1940, 130x96cm) _ This is an example of Max Ernst’s veristic or illusionistic Surrealism, in which a traditional technique is applied to an incongruous or unsettling subject. The theatrical, evocative scene has roots in late nineteenth-century Symbolist painting, especially that of Gustave Moreau [06 Apr 1826 – 18 Apr 1898]. It also echoes the settings and motifs of sixteenth-century German art. The willowy, swollen-bellied figure types recall those of Lucas Cranach the Elder [1472 – 16 Oct 1553] in particular. The architectural backdrop with its strong contrast of light and shadow and its inconsistent perspective shows the additional influence of Giorgio de Chirico [10 Jul 1888 – 19 Nov 1978], whose work had overwhelmed Ernst when he first saw it in 1919.
      The pageantry and elegance of the image are contrasted with its primitivizing aspects—the garish colors, the animal and monster forms—and the blunt phallic Symbolism of the poised spearhead. The central scene is contrasted as well with its counterpart in the picture-within-a-picture at the upper left. In this detail the bride appears in the same pose, striding through a landscape of overgrown classical ruins. Here Ernst has used the technique of decalcomania invented in 1935 by Oscar Domínguez [07 Jan 1906 – 01 Jan 1958], in which diluted paint is pressed onto a surface with an object that distributes it unevenly, such as a pane of glass. A suggestive textured pattern results.
      The title of this work had occurred to Ernst at least as early as 1936, when he italicized it in a text in his book Beyond Painting. Ernst had long identified himself with the bird, and had invented an alter ego, Loplop, Superior of the Birds, in 1929. Thus one may perhaps interpret the bird-man at the left as a depiction of the artist; the bride may in some sense represent the young English Surrealist artist Leonora Carrington.
The Antipope (March 1942, 161x127cm) _ Max Ernst settled in New York in 1941 after escaping from Europe with the help of Peggy Guggenheim. The same year he painted a small oil on cardboard that became the basis for the large-scale The Antipope. When Guggenheim saw the small version, she interpreted a dainty horse-human figure on the right as Ernst, who was being fondled by a woman she identified as herself. She wrote that Ernst conceded that a third figure, depicted in a three-quarter rear view, was her daughter Pegeen; she did not attempt to identify another horse-headed female to the left.1 When Ernst undertook the large version from December to March he changed the body of the “Peggy” figure into a greenish column and transferred her amorous gesture to a new character, who wears a pink tunic and is depicted in a relatively naturalistic way. The “Pegeen” figure in the center appears to have two faces, one of a flayed horse that looks at the horse-woman at the left. The other, with only its cheek and jaw visible, gazes in the opposite direction, out over the grim lagoon, like a pensive subject conceived by Caspar David Friedrich [05 Sep 1774 – 07 May 1840].
      The great upheavals in Ernst’s personal life during this period encourage such a biographical interpretation. Despite his marriage to Guggenheim, he was deeply involved with Leonora Carrington [1917~] at this time, and spent hours riding horses with her. As birds were an obsession for Ernst, so horses were for Carrington. Her identification with them is suggested throughout her collection of stories La Dame ovale, published in 1939 with seven illustrations by Ernst, two of which include metamorphosed horse creatures. It seems plausible that the alienated horse-woman of The Antipope, who twists furtively to watch the other horse-figure, represents a vision of Guggenheim. Like the triumphal bride in Attirement of the Bride, she wears an owl headgear. Her irreconcilable separation from her companion is expressed graphically by the device of the diagonally positioned spear that bisects the canvas. The features of the green totemic figure resemble those of Carrington, whose relationship with Ernst was to end soon after the painting was completed, when she moved to Mexico with her husband.
^Born on 01 April 1852: Edwin Austin Abbey, US English Golden Age muralist and illustrator who died on 01 August 1911.
— Abbey was born in Philadelphia, where he attended evening classes at the Academy while working as an apprentice draughtsman for a local publisher. In 1870 he began a long association with the New York publishers, Harper's, who sent him to England in 1878 to research an illustrated edition of Herrick's poems. After two years in Europe he returned briefly to America, then finally settled in England, marrying in 1890. Having made his name with his illustrations and watercolors, he began to paint seriously in oils in 1889 and soon conquered the RA with such dramatic historical and literary works as Richard, Duke of York, and the Lady Anne, the 'picture of the year' of 1896, and the magnificent Crusaders Sighting Jerusalem of 1891. Meanwhile in 1890, together with his friend John Sargent and Puvis de Chavannes, he was commissioned to paint murals in the new Public Library at Boston, exhibiting them in London in 1895 and 1901 to great acclaim. Other projects of this period were the designs for Irving's (abandoned) production of Richard II (1898), a mural of the Coronation of Edward VII (both completed 1904). The murals in the East Corridor of the Palace of Westminster were painted under his supervision 1908-10. His last years were devoted to a massive scheme of decoration for the state capitol at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (commissioned 1902). He suffered a physical breakdown in 1906 and was still only fifty-nine when he died.

The Queen in Hamlet (1895, 71x56cm)
The Play Scene in "Hamlet" (1897; 135kb)
A Lute Player (1899, Diploma Work, 77x51cm; 600x394pix, 48kb)
King Lear: Cordelia's Farewell
Mistress Mine where are you roaming? (357x551pix, 29kb)
Potpourri (1899, 89x152cm)
Near Easthampson (1878, 18x28cm)
The Penance of Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester (1900, 125x216cm) _ The subject of this large narrative painting comes from Shakespeare's Henry VI: Part II, act 2, scene 4. Eleanor, having vainly urged her husband, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the Lord Protector, to usurp the throne of England, has committed the treasonable offense of consulting sorcerers about the length of the king's life. She has been sentenced to three days' public penance walking barefoot through the streets of London. Eleanor, clad in a white sheet, turns her head to her husband, who stands beside members of his entourage dressed in mourning cloaks, and says to him: Come you, my lord, to see my open shame? Now thou dost penance too. Look how they gaze! See how the giddy multitude do point, And nod their heads, and throw their eyes on thee! Ah, Gloucester, hide thee from their hateful looks, And, in thy closet pent up, rue my shame, And ban thine enemies, both mine and thine! Abbey's interpretation of the Shakespearean environment is tense and hallucinatory. The painting's shallow, crowded frieze of monumental figures is typical of the artist's work of the late 1890s and reflects both medieval and English Pre-Raphaelite prototypes.
^ Died on 01 April 1649: fray Juan Bautista Maino (or Mayno), Spanish Baroque painter born in 1569, 1578, or 1581, who studied under Caravaggio and El Greco.
— He was born at the small court of the Prince of Eboli, Don Ruy Gómez de Silva. His father was Milanese and his mother of Portuguese origin. There is a tradition that Maino was a student of El Greco in Toledo, but there is no suggestion of this in Maino's clear and firm style, which was formed in Italy about 1595-1605. In Rome he was in contact with Annibale Carracci and Guido Reni and became familiar with the work of Caravaggio, which influenced him deeply. Given his father’s Milanese origin, he probably also had contact with artists in Brescia, Cremona, and Milan. In about 1620 Maino moved from Toledo to Madrid, where he worked for Philip III and Philip IV (whose drawing master he had been) and was a friend of Velázquez. Maino was a Dominican priest as well as an artist, but although he painted religious works, he is most highly regarded for his portraits, outstanding among which is the formidably characterized Dominican Monk (1635).
— Fray Juan Rizi was a student of Maino.

Adoration by the Shepherds = Adoration of by Shepherds (1612, 315x174cm; 1000x547pix, 122kb) — Adoration by the Magi = Adoration by the Kings (1612, 315x174cm; 1000x535pix, 121kb) _ These two pictures were painted as altarpieces for the Convent of St Peter Martyr in Toledo. Maino comes close to what we now term 'superrealism' in some sections of the pictures. He achieved this effect by careful control of the texture, shape and volume of the objects together with a very cold but bright lighting, which reveals the influence of Orazio Gentileschi and the Italian Baroque. Many aspects of the compositions derive instead from El Greco, whose works were so numerous in Toledo.
      The artist was trained in the studios of Toledo, and he became the drawing master of Philip IV. He stands apart from his colleagues in resisting the general predilection for dark settings with the light coming from a single or one principal source. The transparency of his colors and the brightness of his tones are combined with a very individual sense of space in which something of the late sixteenth century goes hand in hand with a love of realistic detail typical of the new age. Three of Maino's works that claim attention are the Adoration of the Shepherds and its companion-piece, the Adoration of the Kings (in the Prado) as well as the Pentecost in the Toledo Museum.
The Recovery of Bahia in 1625 = The Recovery of Bahia in 1625 (1635; 667x850pix, 138kb)
The Virgin Appears to a Dominican Monk in Seriano
^Died on 01 April 1621: Cristofano Allori, Florentine painter, born on 17 Oct 1577.
— Breaking with the Mannerist traditions kept alive by his father Alessandro Allori [03 May 1535 – 22 Sep 1607], Cristofano became one of the foremost Florentine artists of the early Baroque period, also winning renown as a courtier, poet, musician and lover. He had a complex character, ardent, devoutly religious and obsessively perfectionist. — Cristofano Allori was one of the leading Florentine painters of his period, working in a style that was more naturalistic and Baroque than that of his father. He is remembered primarily for one work, Judith with the Head of Holofernes (in several versions), in which his femme fatale mistress is portrayed as Judith and he has depicted his own features in Holofernes' severed head. In the 18th and 19th centuries it was one of the most famous paintings in Italy. Cristofano Allori's students included Cesare Dandini [1595-1658].

–- Judith with the Head of Holofernes (1613, 139x116cm; 833x696pix, 58kb _ ZOOM to 1250x1045pix, 91kb _ ZOOM+ to 2378x2090pix, 332kb) _ Allori was trained in the school of his father and his grandfather, the leading Florentine Mannerist Agnolo Allori, known as Bronzino. Even if Cristofano may be regarded as an artist who broke with late Mannerist tendencies and went on to become an express proponent of early Baroque reform ideas, he nevertheless continues to borrow certain traits of "Mannerist physiognomy" in order to heighten the effect of a picture. In his most famous painting, Judith with the Head of Holofernes, the extreme contrast between the dark and bearded head of Holofernes and the angelic face of his murderess owes much to the Mannerist school in which he was trained. Allori is said to have created a portrait of his mistress Mazzafirra in the figure of Judith and her mother in the figure of the elderly servant woman. The head of Holofernes may be a self portrait. If this is true, the picture would certainly be a classic example of the so-called "portrait historié" in which real figures are presented as figures from history. Whether or not this is true, the significance of this painting lies predominantly in the enormous erotic tension that emanates not only from the faces of Judith and Holofernes, but also from the sensuality with which the Old Testament heroine is portrayed. This major theme of triumph over tyranny had never before been presented from this point of view.
The Hospitality of Saint Julian (259x201cm)
A Man

Died on a 01 April:

2004 Enrique Grau Araújo [18 Dec 1920–], Colombian painter born (main coverage) on 18 December 1920. —(100331]

^ 1926 Charles Angrand, French Normand pointillist painter born on 19 (29?) April 1854. — {Même les moindre sujets, Angrand en grand les représentait?}— He was trained at the Académie de Peinture et de Dessin in Rouen, where he won prizes. Although he failed to gain entry to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Angrand began to win a controversial local reputation for canvases in a loosely Impressionist manner. In 1882 he secured a post as a schoolteacher at the Collège Chaptal in Paris. With this security he was able to make contacts in progressive artistic circles, and in 1884 he became a founder-member of the Salon des Indépendants. His paintings of this period depict rural interiors and kitchen gardens, combining the broken brushwork of Monet and Camille Pissarro with the tonal structure of Bastien-Lepage (e.g. In the Garden, 1884). — LINKS
Couple dans la Rue (600x512pix, 121kb _ EN GRAND 2370x2024pix, 922kb) _ detail (600x800pix, 222kb) to show brush strokes _ mostly yellow _ starting with the detail, and then with successively smaller details, the pseudonymous Charmes Anplugran (one of whose mottoes is “If it's broken, fix it”) has enlarged them, processed them in various ways, and ended up with the symmetrical abstractions:
     _ Coulpe dans la Ruée aka Rue Peur (2006; screen filling, 358kb _ EN GRAND 1864x2636pix, 2520kb),
     _ Souple dans la Route aka Et Pur Érupte (2006; screen filling, 330kb _ EN GRAND 1864x2636pix, 2422kb),
     _ Soupe dans la Déroute aka Et Pas Apte (2006; screen filling, 233kb _ EN GRAND 1864x2636pix, 1677kb),
     _ Coule dans l'Avenue aka Et Pot Opte (2006; screen filling, 277kb _ EN GRAND 1864x2636pix, 3158kb), and
     _ Coupe dans la Rumeur aka Épate Tape (2006; screen filling, 112kb _ EN GRAND 1864x2636pix, 1699kb).
Le Pont de Pierre, Rouen (1881, 80x124cm; 599x932pix, 100kb) after sunset
Les Moissoneurs (1892)
Le Blé (688x1012pix, 127kb)
Meules de Foin en Normandie (543x800pix, 159kb)
–- Le Petit Port (1122x1350pix, 258kb)
–- Le Gardeur de Dindons (1881, 55x46cm; 1197x1000pix, 200kb) _ This was painted five years before L’après midi d’été à la grande jatte, Seurat’s manifesto to divisionism. Angrand did not paint more than ten canvases per year and destroyed many of his early works, including a larger version of Le Gardeur de Dindons, keeping only those which he felt best reflected his artistic aims. The audacious subject and startling technique of Le gardeur de dindons puzzled Angrand’s contemporaries, but one comment was: "Ce n’est pas le gris, c’est le blanc qu’affectionne monsieur Angrand. Son Gardeur de dindons, bien qu’il prête à rire par la façon japonaise dont le sujet est traité n’est point exempt de qualités…Le terrain, vert pâle moucheté de blanc est bizarre : les dindons ne semblent pas à leur place, mais nous serions étonnés si monsieur Charles Angrand, revenu des étrangetés des prétendus impressionnistes, n’arrivait pas à quelque chose, car il voit juste. The luminous shades of green, the simple planes and the precise and distinct brushstrokes of the present work anticipate the scientific principles of neo-impressionism championed by Angrand’s friend Seurat. While he always distanced himself from all official artistic or political movements, Angrand’s influence in leading the path from impressionism to neo-impressionism and divisionism was recognized by his peers, including Van Gogh, who, in a letter of 25 October 1886, expressed his desire to exhange two of his views of Le Moulin de la Galette, against an early Angrand painting Dans la basse-cour.
— (le chemin de fer) (533x687pix, 75kb) —(100331)

1910 Mikaïl Alexandrovitch Wrubel (or Wroubel), Russian artist born on 05 March 1856.

1910 Andreas Achenbach, German painter born (full coverage) on 29 September 1815.

1839 Nicolas-Didier Boguet, French painter and draftsman, active in Italy, born on 18 February 1755. Sent to Paris at the age of 23 as a protégé of the Prince de Condé, he was admitted to the Académie on the recommendation of Augustin Pajou to study history painting. In 1783 he went to Rome, where he began to concentrate on landscape, spending the summer months outdoors in the Roman Campagna. These trips resulted in hundreds of drawings, the best of which have been compared to those of Claude Lorrain. In the 1790s Boguet painted views for European aristocrats staying in Rome, in particular Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, for whom he painted a View of Lake Albano in 1795. The following year Boguet was introduced to Napoleon, who persuaded him to paint a number of works celebrating his Italian campaigns, including the Battle of Castiglione.

1802 Andreas Achenbach, French painter born (full coverage) on 22 September 1725.

1784 Johannes Janson, Dutch artist born on 17 April 1729.

Born on a 01 April:

1907 Jean-Gaston Bardet, Vichy French architect, city planner, and author born on 01 April 1907. —(060225)

1840 (20 March Julian) Illarion Mikhailovich Pryanishnikov [–24 Mar 1894], Russian painter.
Easter Procession (1893, 102x165cm; 1300x2068pix, 528kb)
Savior’s Day in the North (1887; 625x1024pix, 452kb)—(090311)

^ 1821 Geskel Saloman (or Salomon), Swedish artist who died on 02 July 1902. — {Wasn't it him who made a famous judgment?}
{No. He came too late. Nanni di Bartolo had already carved the Judgment of Salomon in 1438, and The Judgement of Solomon had been painted by Giorgione in 1496, Raphael in 1511, Nicolas Poussin in 1649, Leonaert Bramer, Nikolay Gay in 1854, and, most notably, by none other than Simeon Solomon. But that was not the end of it. Giotto de Bondone had painted in 1306 what he called The Last Judgment. But it was far from the last! He was followed by Giovanni Pisano in 1310, Jan van Eyck in 1425, Lorenzo Maitani in 1330, Stephan Lochner in 1435, Rogier van der Weyden in 1452, Hans Memling in 1471, Hieronymus Bosch, Mino da Fiesole, Nardo di Cione, Jan Provoost in 1525, Lucas van Leyden in 1526, Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1541, just to mention a few that come to mind... or, more exactly, to my computer screen. And that's without mentioning The Judgment of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder in 1514 and again in 1528, by Joachim Antoniszoon Wtewael in 1615, by Niklaus Manuel in 1518, by Marcantonio Raimondi in 1520, by Giovanni Sons, by Pieter Pawel Rubens in 1636 and 1639, by Pacecco de Rosa, by Claude Lorrain in 1646, by François Boucher; by Jacob de Wit; by James Barry; or The Judgment of Midas by John Sell Cotman], or The Judgment of Cambyses by Gérard David; or The Judgment of Jupiter by John Deare}

^ 1790 Louis-Charles-Auguste Couder, French painter who died on 21 July 1873. A student of Jean-Baptiste Regnault and David, he exhibited for the first time in the Salon of 1814 with The Death of General Moreau. In 1817 The Levite of Ephraïm was widely praised by the critics. In 1818 he received his first official commission, for the decoration of the vaulted ceiling of the vestibule to the Galerie d’Apollon in the Louvre. Couder’s reputation as a history painter was based on the commissions he executed for the Musée Historique in Versailles. In addition to many portraits, he produced large paintings, in which rich coloring was combined with precise academic drawing: for example, La Bataille de Lawfeld (1836) and Le Siège de Yorktown (1837), both painted for the Galerie des Batailles; La Fédération du 14 Juillet 1790 (1844); and Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1848), which was inspired very directly by the unfinished Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1791) of David {representing the event of 20 Jun 1789 and also imitated in Le Serment du Jeu de Paume (1791; 460x701pix, 82kb) by Merson [21 May 1846 – 13 Nov 1920]}. L'Ouverture des États Généraux à Versailles le 5 Mai 1789 (1840) is a good illustration of his ability to present a historical reconstruction containing a large number of figures without monotony, thanks to his talent for portraiture and the skilful disposition of light.
The Death of Masaccio (1817, 45x38 cm)

^ 1766 François-Xavier Fabre, French Neoclassical painter, printmaker, and collector, specialized in Portraits, who died on 16 March 1837. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou [1719–1791] in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children. This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790.) at the Salon of 1791. — LINKS
Oedipus and the Sphinx (50x66cm _ ZOOMable to 1511x2000pix, 634kb)
     _ detail: the Sphinx (664x1000pix, 206kb _ ZOOMable to 1327x2000pix)
Lucien Bonaparte (1810; 755x600pix _ ZOOM to 1400x1761pix)
Laurent-Nicolas de Joubert (1787, oval 78x61cm)
Madame de Joubert (1787, oval 31x24cm)

1743 Karl-Sébastien von Bemmel, German artist who died on 27 November 1796.

1686 Jan-Frans van Bredael I, in Antwerp, Flemish painter who died on 19 February 1750, son of Alexander van Bredael {see below). Jan-Frans van Bredael I imitated the style of Wouverman and Breughel with such dexterity that even connoisseurs are often unable to distinguish his copies of their pictures from the originals. He visited England, where he was so well employed that in. a few years he was able to retire to his native country. There were several other artists van Bredaels, notably Pieter [1622-1719}, Alexander's father, and Jozef [1688-1739]. They were formerly known as Breda, but this apparently is incorrect, though it occurs as a signature on a picture by Jan Frans.

1663 Alexander van Bredael (or Bredel, Breda), Flemish artist who died on 14 July 1720, father of Jan-Frans van Bredael (see above).

^ 1618 Jan Philips Righolz Conwemberg van Thielen, Mechelen Flemish painter who died in 1667, brother-in-law of Théodore Rombouts. He was an apprentice of the flower painter Daniel Seghers, to whom some of his unsigned floral vases and garlands have sometimes been attributed. He was made a master of the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp in 1641 or 1642 but became a member of the same guild in Mechelen in 1660. Van Thielen collaborated with his brother-in-law Erasmus Quellinus II (25 paintings are known) and with the Dutch artist Cornelis van Poelenburch. He probably also worked with Cornelis Schut I. Van Thielen painted floral garlands, and his collaborators produced the figures. His paintings are generally signed: I. P. Van Thielen. Rigouldts (after his mother) in the 1640s, I. P. Van Thielen after 1650, and I. P. Van Thielen Heere Van CouwenBerche on late works in the 1660s, after he had assumed the title of Lord of Couwenberch. Examples of paintings on which he worked, all signed and dated, include two versions of the Floral Garland with Virgin and Child (1645), Floral Garland with Vertumnus and Pomona (1648), Floral Garland with Salvator Mundi (1650), Floral Garland with Immaculate Conception (1651) and Floral Garland with Virgin and Child (1652). His style was less spontaneous than that of Seghers, with each flower standing out individually rather than blending into the composition as a whole. Van Thielen’s three daughters became flower painters: Anna-Maria [1641–], Francisca-Catherina [1645–] and Maria-Theresia [1640–1706]. — LINKS
Roses and Tulips and Jasmine in a Glass with a Dragonfly and a Butterfly (32x234cm)
A vase of flowers (1641, 51x41cm; 780x605pix, 57kb)
A vase of flowers with a bust statue in the background (51x41cm; 780x517pix, 71kb)
— a different A vase of flowers (51x41cm; 780x570pix, 43kb)
— yet another A vase of flowers (1641, 51x41cm; 780x597pix, 46kb)
–- S*#> Tulips and Roses in a Stoneware Vase (900x686pix, 135kb) —(060328)

Happened on a 01 April:

2002 Auctioned at Sotheby's LA Structures I by V. Grinberg, for some $20'000. [image below]
only on April First !!!
^ 1891 Painter Paul Gauguin [07 Jun 1848 – 08 May 1903] leaves Marseille for Tahiti. Here are links to images of a few of the paintings he would make there: Tahitiennes sur la Plage Déjeûner de BananesFemme au Fruit Fête des Dieux D'où venons~nous? — No te aha oe riri?Manao TupapauIa Orana MariaLe Cheval BlancCavaliers sur la Plage

Predicted to happen on a 01 April:

2111 Starting at 03:14:16 UT the first 1.24 trillion decimals of p (pi) are at long last completely uploaded to this site. If you are the patient mathematical type come back then and get your FREE DOWNLOAD.
     However, if you are the impatient artistic type and do not want to wait that long, you may be interested instead in the brilliant twin pictures which the pseudonymous Pity Goras has produced:
      _ PI IN THE SKY (2007; 724x1024pix, 214kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 446kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3130kb) and
      _ IN THE SKY PI (2007; 724x1024pix, 214kb _ ZOOM to 1024x1448pix, 446kb _ ZOOM+ to 2636x3728pix, 3130kb).
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